73rd and 74th amendments of the Indian Constitution have given a practical shape to Article 40. They transfer the representative democracy into participatory democracy. It is a revolutionary concept to build democracy at the grassroot level in the country.
Main Features of 73rd Amendment
It added a new Part IX entitled as ‘The Panchayats’ , added 16 Articles from 243 to 243 O. It also added a new Eleventh Schedule that contains 29 functional items of the panchayats. It deals with Article 243-G.
Three-Tier system with Panchayats at the village, intermediate, and district levels. But A State having a population not exceeding 20 lakh (or 2 million) may not constitute panchayats at the intermediate level i.e. it can have only two levels.
Members are Elected directly by the people. The chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels are elected indirectly by and from amongst the elected members. The chairperson of a panchayat at the village level is determined by State legislature.
Women Members and Chairpersons – Not less than one-third of the total number of seats for women (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging the SCs and STs).
Main Features of 74th Amendment
Added a new Part IX-A entitled as ‘The Municipalities’. Added 18 Articles from 243-P to 243-ZG. Added a new Twelfth Schedule that contains 18 functional items. It deals with Article 243-W.
Three Types of Municipalities viz. A nagar panchayat, A municipal council and A municipal corporation for a larger urban area. If there is an urban area where municipal services are being provided by an industrial establishment, then the governor may specify that area to be an industrial township.
All the members of a municipality shall be elected directly by the people of the municipal area.
SCs and STs in proportion of their population to the total population. Women Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging the SCs and STs).
|Paper||APPSC Group 1 Mains 2020 – Paper III: Polity, constitution, Governance, Law, and Ethics|
|Question||3 (a). Describe the main features of the 73rd and 74th amendment of the Indian Constitution.|
|Source||Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth|
|Chapters||Local Government – Panchayat Raj and Municipalities|
Two questions 3(a) and 5(b) are almost same. But to delineate the answers for both questions, Provisions of Constitutional Amendment Acts can be written for question 3(a) whereas the actual performance with some provisions can be noted for question 5(b).